News - Communication


In order for news to achieve its purpose, it, of course, has to reach out to people and create an interest. But more importantly, for news to work, it has to communicate - with and to the audience. The communication I key, and it has to be clear and concise, but there is not just one way to do this.

How to see that the communication is working ?
There are different models that can be used to see and achieve how the media or news communicate with an audience, the models show a clearer visual "image" where there are added different steps on the way from the transmitter to the recipient and put into sections. This makes it easier to see the distance a news case has to "travel" before it gets back to the transmitter and they have achieved their goal. As well as it shows how the communication can be interrupted on the way.

The Process Model 

- - -



// translated from Norwegian //

In short:
"The process model shows how to transfer a message from sender / transmitter to receiver / recipient, and what effect the sender / transmitter achieves. "

  • The process model is also referred to as a "linear model", which means that it follows a straight line, from one place to another. 
  • Another word for this model is "The Train-model", as the process model does just like a train, and travels from one station to another in a straight line on one track.
  • In English it is somewhat similar to Claude Shannon´s diagram of the general communication system, however, there are some differences between the Process model and Shannon´s diagram. 

Transmitter - Message - Recipient

- BBC - England hit by swine flu - Helen

The noise occurs between of the message and the recipient, different noise that can affect the message from reaching out and communicate with the audience is;

  • Too technical or advanced use of language
  • People around the recipient being loud, - at work, train station, family etc.
  • Crackling speakers
  • Incomprehensive or foreign language 
  • Spread communication

The Text Model
- extended text concept -

- - -


// translated from Norwegian //

To describe the image above - On top is the "Media text", then in the bottom left corner is the "reader" and on the bottom right corner is the "readers reality = all their experiences in life"

In short:

"The Text Model focuses on the interaction between the text and the recipient."

  • The Text Model - Extended text concept; Means that the text is extended to not just concern the text itself. But also pictures, music, sound, film etc.
  • How do we actually read a media text? How do we understand it?
  • How we interpret and understand a media text has to do with our own reality and experiences. -  Where we live, what is happening around us - war, society, family etc.
  • When we as an audience read a text, we bring with us our attitudes and understanding into how we perceive the text and content. 
  • This model is, therefore an important asset as to how news and news channels have to think in order to be able to customize content as well as create content that is understandable for the certain groups, countries, people they are trying to reach.

There are  not only different models that can help us understand the different communication methods, but there are also different ways we communicate in our everyday lives that contribute to affect the methods, models and our understanding in general of how the media is trying to communicate to us. 

Personal Communication 

Means communication between two or a few people, that are in direct contact with each other. The participants vary and change the role of who is the sender / transmitter and, or receiver / recipient. The communication is private and characterized by direct feedback. 

Other factors relevant to personal communication; 

- Two-ways dialogue
- Private
- Verbal or written
- Does usually not require a medium
- None-professional senders / transmitters
- Constant feedback
- None-verbal : body language
- Not proportional
- Face to face

Mass Communication 

Means dissemination of a message from a source to a target and socially diverse audience in a short time. Mass communication can be communicated through different channels such as, radio signals or computer streams. The transmitter is very often professional and the communication is one-way with very few options, close to none opportunities for feedback. 

Other factors that is relevant to mass communication;

- One-way communication (As of usually, but not always)
- Verbal , written or visual
- Public
- Require a medium
- Professional transmitters (usually)
- Many recipients
- little, or close to none feedback

- - -

Relevance to digital news production 

In terms of our own digital news production, it is very valuable to have a basic understanding of how the communication with an audience works. How we can think - different strategies, specified content aimed at different student groups etc. As our news production is digital and we operate from different social media platforms as well, how we communicate and manage to keep our audience interested matters massively. Therefore looking at these different models has been very helpful to me, and I feel that putting it in context with the difference between mass- and- personal communication gives a better understanding for what our channel is and how we need to create or news for it to work the way we ant it to. 

//Images from

// Sources of information

Previous notes from education at Mysen Videregående
- Media and Communication studies -

You may also like

No comments:

Television by Ida Frank. Powered by Blogger.