" Digital News Production "
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Roles in the production 
Under the development, planning and work of this unit and production, I have been in groups with Nisserin, Josh and Becca (Rebecca). As the project has developed we have all participated in different areas. One of the first things we did was to take on roles, I did sound recording and sound design, Niserrin has been the DOP / cinematographer, Josh has been the editor and presenter and Becca has been the director. We have all helped develop our idea and script, therefore we are all co-producers. Nisserin and Becca wrote the script and Josh has created our graphics. We have had several meetings and group sessions together where we have planned, brainstorm, discussed and created. The time we have had at our disposal has been used to the max, and we have made extremely good use of it. We have truly been structured, organized and efficient. 

Actors / Contributors / Casting
On this unit we decided to use one of our own team members as our main presenter, Josh, as we got a green light for this by Helen. Therefore we did not have to put up any ads on casting call pro or similar sites. We did some research on the year bellow us, and found out that Goerge Wing in the first year would suit our brand as co-presenter really well. Therefore we contacted him and he said yes to be a part of our project. When it comes to our contributor we also found her amongst the first years, Katie Joslin, as she has a youtube channel with about 6500 subscribers - and we knew that she would be a good contributor to our topic, viral videos. We made them sign consent forms and kept it professional. 

Why we chose our story
We chose to create a brand, channel, and product about viral videos as we wanted to target students and we found that online and social media is where our targeted group is the easiest to get to. We also found that viral videos are something students find funny and interesting, as well as we knew that this is something we like and that brightens up our day during our hard days at uni. And that was one of our main points, we wanted to create a product that we ourselves would find interesting, and as we are students ourselves, we knew that we could reach our target group by creating something we like and find cool ourselves.

The goal
The goal with this unit was to develop an own original online news channel and produce content for that channel. Research, develop, create, shoot and edit our own digital news production in response to a defined brief. The goal for the digital news production was to fulfill the criteria to what a news production and channel is, as well as to hit our aimed target group. We wanted to achieve a new, modern, engaging and creative look and production, and to capture content relatable and funny to target - students.

My experiences
I found this unit to become something completely different than what I had thought it would be when I first heard about it. I am not such a big fan of news productions in general, or journalism related stuff as I often feel restricted and that the creative aspect of it quickly disappears. However, this unit has been one of the most fun units at uni so far! I have actually enjoyed this unit so much, thanks to the group I have worked with and our great group dynamics. Everything has gone smoothly, most of the times, only challenges we have had, has been that we had to change location due to rain, a sound issue in one of the mornings of shooting which was solved and fixed very quick and that we almost lost our co-presenter. Other than that it has been a steady ship on a quiet sea, and we have always been very up to date with work, structured, organized and last but not least optimistic. We have had so much fun, laughed so much and I will actually be quite sad that it is now over.

When it comes to if the goal has been reached with this unit and production, I would say it has! I know that our whole group is very pleased with our finished product as well as our amaze group spirit and work. I have learned that a digital news production does not have to be boring uór uncreative at all! It has been a fun, exciting and cool project to work on, and I feel that the criteria for the unit has been reached. I also feel that I have been able to contribute positively to this project, that we all together have been able to reach our goals with the production. We have definitely achieved the look, style and branding we were going for, all in all a product I mean answers the assignment and shows understanding for research, development, teamwork, technique, editing tools, branding as well as writing, sound and camera techniques. 

  • In the editing process, Josh has been our editor, and editing is a one man job sitting there cutting and piecing it all together. However our editing has been a very collaborative process in the way of how we have all contributed and shaped the product.
  • Already in the planning of the script when putting up the structure for our story, we were doing the edit almost without even thinking about it. How we chose to go from Intro, to interview and package and back to studio etc. sat a pace for the edit and worked out as a guideline for Josh to follow in the edit. 
  • The script was all shaped and developed by all of us, so by the means of it we all helped out to easen the edit process a teeny bit. Even all the different effects, memes, references to viral videos and wording of the script helped out to make it clear what would actually appear on the screen in the edit. 

Promo Cut -

- For our promo, we decided quite early on that we wanted our promo/trailer to stand out a bit and have a distinct style to it. Therefore we wanted to go all out and decided to start it off as "taking place in the 1960´s".

- When we wrote the script for the trailer we mentioned the words "student yak brings colour to your life", and the thought about how back in the days it was b&w coloured tv broadcasts, and we thought it would be funny to play around with this. Therefore; A TV in our trailer goes from b&w to coloured screen and shows a quick recap/presentation of what our channel offers to the audience.

- After the first edit, we all critically looked at it and agreed that there wasn´t much to point fingers at. Due to good planning and prep for the shoot everything kind of came together exactly how we intended it to. So we decided to just add on our social media links at the end, and kept the edit as it was.

Rough Cut -

- When it comes to the rough cut we had it ready already on Friday 23rd, and we were all very excited to see how our project had roughly come together. It was very close to a fine cut when we viewed it apart from some adjustments like adding the studio background to the green screen clips.

- After our rough cut feedback from Helen the following week, Tuesday, she pointed out how she liked our overall product, but that our interview bit kind of slow down the pace and seems a bit boring and dull compared to the rest of the video which is very fast paced, silly and fun. She also pointed out the colour difference in our live piece, because we shot on two different cameras, and that we in general needed to go over the clips in the interview to make sure they were not too blue or green.

- We also noticed some bits and bobs that we thought should be changed until the next cut, Josh noted these down to work on them up until the fine cut.

Fine Cut -

- When we all sat down the day before the fine cut deadline we were much more happy with how it looked. Josh had now put in all of the virtual studio which gave a very coherent feel to the video.

  •  We decided to sit down and look at the details and look at what extra little bits we could do to change up the interview for it to be more fun. 
  •  We added a new music track with more upbeat music
  •  Included some more of only our contributor talking and not so much the presenter. 
  • We added in little pictures of objects with sound effects matching some of the words she was saying to make it more silly.
  • We also added a picture slide of our contributor´s youtube video to show and present her channel.

- We also added some sound effects generally to other bits of the video to make it more funny. Drum beats to our live piece.

- We also changed the picture of reference to YouTuber "Fred" (YT sensation back in the days) and attached his face to two of our audience members from the live piece as this worked better instead of having him slide in on screen.

- We went through the whole project to colour correct and make sure the colours were right.

- And in general we re-viewed our video several times to make sure that we would now be happy with our final cut.

On the final cut viewing Thursday 27th, the feedback from Helen was that she really liked it, and that the edit was now sleek and smooth. She did not have any comments to us on anything we should change, as we had taken on the feedback and made the changes necessary since the rough cut.

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//Images from Google.com

For our studio, we shot this on a greenscreen and wanted to create a virtual studio for it. Josh is our editor and also graphic designer, so when we had shot some test shots in the green screen workshop he sat down to experiment with what were to become our studio background.

- Josh created a suggestion for a studio and showed it to all of us.
- We then all commented on it and noted down the small little changes we wanted to make.

Screen shot from the designer program Josh used

These are the programs Josh used to design our set, and it has been massively helpful for our design, branding and for us to get to the final result we are all so, so happy with.

Sweet Home 3D: A 3D building software that is usually used for architectural design.
Google Sketchup: A 3D modeling software used to create personalized 3D models.

Design 1

Design 2

- The studio background has developed slowly and steadily.
- There has been small changes throughout the process.
- Moving the objects to adjust the positioning.
- We also decided to make the stripes on the wall bigger, due to the fact that it was more pleasing for the eye to watch. And also it fits with our website designe. 

Design 3

Design 4

- We all collaborated to get the final look of the studio that we were all pleased with. 
- We wanted cameras and studio equipment in frame to show that it "is a studio"
- This gives associations to it always being used for shooting
- We also wanted to have a pineapple in the background to make it a "red thread" throughout the whole production, as we also have this on the table in the interview. And mentioned in the content.

Alan Carr Chatty Man Set

It was also mentioned that our set looks a bit like the set of Alan Carr Chatty Man. Josh agreed that it has a similar look to it, which we concluded is a good thing because this show is also informative, entertaining, and humorus just like Student Yak should be. 

//Images screenshot from Josh

Modern Democratic Media Freedom - what does it mean?

  • Consists of an open room where the public freely can discuss questions that concerns the society or community. 
  • Political representatives presents and listens. 
  • Regular people have access to knowledge that is needed to engage and address society debates.
  • The media shall inform the public about what is going on in the government and witht the leaders of the country. 
  • The mass media is in itself a part of the public room, where conversations and debate can take place. 
  • Describes the assumptions to an ideal public.
  • There is something distinct distinguished between private and publig room. 

Media politics 

- The faith in media´s power to affect and influence people has changed over the last century.

1 - To underpin this we have first up, the theory about the "Almighty media" and the massive faith that the media has a distinct ability to affect and influence. So be it, that this is news cases, peoples meanings, social media a.s.o. - Stimulus = response.

2 - The theory about the "Impotently media", - Two steps hypotheises.
The diffusion theory - diffusion and the almighty media are related.

3 - The theory about the powerful media
Man chooses media with messages and topics that matches what they think and feel themselves.

- Media works as an agenda setter for the public
- The media affects and evolves around different topics and issues we concerned about.
- The media uses different patterns and models for storyline or story telling, dramaturgy if you´d like.

examples: - Heroes = protagonist, - Vilians = antagonists.

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  • The media and news feeds us story upon story and sets the agenda for what we should care about. It also brings up issues or cases we already care about, to make us engage and take part in important debates. 
  • In the end where we live, what happens around us, how old we are, our hobbies, family and experiences we have gone through affects how we see the news, how we engage in or with them and what we take time out of our everyday busy lives to pay attention to and interest in. 

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//Images from google.com

//Sources of information 

Previous notes from education at Mysen Videregående
- Media and Communication studies -

Comedy genres:

- Musical comedy
- Romantic comedy
- Horror comedy
- Action comedy
- Sci-fi comedy
- Fantasy comedy

References to films that fit within these categories:

- The Sprinkler Sprinkled - Lumiere brothers - 1895
- Groundhog day - 1993
- Charlie Chaplin - Modern times - 1986
- Crockodile Don Dee - 1996
- The dictator - 2012

Well known creators and comedy related gents:

- Lumiere brothers
- Woody Allen
- Alexander Payne

Our production would probably fit under the combination of musical comedy, fantasy comedy and a bit of action comedy. It combines all these genres into one, specified and modern result.


French ; -

- Short and investigating news interview
- typical five on the street
- simple and quick questions, with simple answeres

A great way to get people´s opinion or reaction to a new incident, trend or situation - example; election, and why or why not the public will be voting for that particular candidate. An Enquete is often used in betwwen in reportages or news stories to build and add more meat to the bone to the overall topic. The questions are often narrowed down to be able to answer one specific "investigation".

When we were in the planning phase of our production, one of our initial ideas was a reaction video to the viral videos we were going to make. Where it would have included a question to the people we got to watch it,whether or not - production value is important in a viral video? And, which video they liked the best?

This would have worked as an enquet, because the purpose of this "live" interview that we in the end did not go through with, was to add on "meat" to the topic of our whole episode. As well as find out/hear it from students themselves, their opinions and reactions.


  1. the technique of selecting, editing, and piecing together separate sections of film to form a continuous whole.
    "montage was a useful device for overcoming the drawbacks of silent film"
    • a sequence of film made using the technique of montage.
      plural noun: montages
      "a montage of excerpts from the film"
    • the technique of producing a new composite whole from fragments of pictures, text, or music.
      "the art of montage in theatre and film"

A montage in context with our production means that it is different elements and pieces put together; promo, package, interview and live piece, where on their own they are one single puzzle piece. And when they all come togheter in the edit, they all fit perfectly together and creates the news episode we pictured in our heads during prep and planning.

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//Images from google.com

//Sources of information

Previous notes from education at Mysen Videregående
- Media and Communication studies -

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As written work on our web page, we had all chosen different categories that we were in charge of. My categories are (Un)Social Yak as well as Tech Yak. We wanted our articles to be verbal, and more youthful, therefore we have stepped away from the basic journalistic criteria of not refering to oneself in articles. And instead used this as a strategy to connect and reach our readers and viewers.

As a brand we decided not to have any swear words in our actual production, however in our articles, we have allowed ourselves the privilege of censored banter and swears occasionally. As we feel this is something our age groups will relate to and like, the fact that we are being stright forward and not afraid to express ourselves. Although, we will try to keep swearing at a minimum.


For the (Un)Social article I chose to go with one of our original ideas that was brought up in the planning process. When we as a group was talking about how Twitter is always relevant for beefs and feuds between celebrities, important politicians or fans talking to or about their tv shows or musicians and actors a.s.o. I thought it would be a good idea to show and talk about a case that are currently taking up a lot of people's everyday entertainment and interests. 

Article on the web page:

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For the Tech Yak article, I also used one of the first initial ideas. I came up with it whilst in the planning process for the channel and production, and we all talked about our different ideas. The idea I chose to go with for this article was the "app testing" idea, where I would test an app and review it, as well as encourage the viewers to check or not check it out. 

Article on the web page:

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We ended up filming the LIVE indoors in the base room, as it on the day was pouring down with rain.

// Documents and 
forms from UCA


The definition; Sound is a stream of pressure variations in the air.
From 1000 - 4000 Hz is the area of which our hearing as human beings is at the best. We describe frequencies as sound by either desibel or volume.

  • The pain threshold for the human ear is at - 120 decibels
  • There are a lot of different aspects to think about when, performing, recording, playing sound.
  • A room´s proportions and size, as well as design, to not forget about how angles of walls breaks up the sound, and how the things, such as furniture, and in general the room´s content affects the sound. 
  • This is why music studios, concert halls, and venues are designed the way they are. With soft fabric-covered cases on the walls, combining both soft and hard surfaces, stairs or hollow ceilings in concert venues. It has all thoroughly been thought about and considered when constructing the building or studio. 
  • We operate with mainly two sampling frequencies when it comes to sound; 44.1 KHz (Kilo hertz) and 48 KHz. 
  • There is only one of these that are used to work with in film, which is 48 KHz because this number adds up with 24 fps (frames per second). Which originates from when they first started putting film and sound together back in the days, when they filmed on film - 24 fps.

// sound waves and how the particles of sound and vibrations travels through the air to our ears: //

Important elements in sound are voice, environment sound, effect sound, and music.

- EPDE - 
Estimates - what to come, what will we hear about.
Presentation - presenting the main topic, main sound.
Development - the development of the topic/action, what happens next.
Ending - round up and ending.

There are two main types of microphones, dynamic and condenser microphones. The condenser microphone is powered by an electrical voltage, to be able to function - this voltage is called phantom power and is usually at +48 volt.

Microphones have different pickup patterns, which is always a good thing to remember and consider when recording sound. One pattern might for example: suit a swimming hall better than the other, depending on whether you want to record the sound of just a swimmer in the water, or all the people talking and yelling in the hall.

These are the four different pickup patterns a microphone can have;

Digital News Production
As the sound set engineer and sound designer of our production, it was important for me to make sure that we would get the best out of the sound as we could. First of all, I requested the sound equipment I felt would fit our production, and we all agreed one what to actually book out.

We wanted to have a clip mic "cardioid" to record our presenter and contributor, as well as we wanted a location sound kit with zoom and +48 "cardioid" condenser microphone and additionally a Rode mic "omnidirectional" to mount on top of one of the DSLR´s.

  • I also had to think about the room we were filming in, which was the Lecture room right next to the baseroom. We stacked all the chairs in one end of the room, which left the room with a bit of echo and empty sound. 
  • For the interview, we carried in the couch from the base room as well as two tables,  some plants and a couple of cushions. And altogether when we had set up the camera equipment and lights, plus the amount of people in the room, five, we managed to make the room sound nice. Not to empty and not too full. 
  • For the green screen shoot, we were in the same room, and also stacked the chairs in the other end of the room. This time the massive green screen blanket and all the light equipment plus camera and crew helped to make the room sound authentic. 
  • We had some issues one of the first shooting days with the clip mic, and got some help from Ferg to find the right channel for the mic to connect to. And from there on it went really well.
  • In post some of these recordings could have a tendency to peak a little if the person spoke too loudly, but we have still managed to make it work. I have learned until next time, how to check the clip mic settings properly and are more confident in being able to source out the issue if it were to happen again. 
  • With sound, as my former sound teacher thought me "shit in - shit out", so you always have to do your best to get good sound while you are there recording. If it sounds shit while recording, it will sound shit in post, and you most likely will not be able to fix it. 

Sound design:

The definition; Sound design is the eastethic completed and put together sound image in film and/or theater. It consists of creating the whole sound universe for the particular play or film and storyline, either by the use of sound effects for huge explosions. Or subtle sounds to underpin and enhance the mood and feelings.

  • A sound designer manages the editing of sound and effects in post-production but does often also start their work at the same time as other sound editors. 
  • The main task for a sound designer is to notice and identify the three main sound effects that are needed. 
  • They use synthesizers, samplers and audio lup-ins to manipulate and edit the original recordings to achieve the sounds and effects they need. 
  • The final mix is when all the different aspects of the sound universe come together at the end to fulfill the sound image. Consisting of; dialogue, automated dialogue replacement, foley, atmosphere, music and special effects tracks are blended together.

Diegetic sound

Another term for diegetic sound is actual sound  
    Diegesis is a Greek word for "recounted story" 
    The film's diegesis is the total world of the story action  
- Any sound presented as originated from the source within the film´s world and universe.
- The source is basically who or what actually makes the sound we see on screen, so for example, a person speaking, a dog barking, a dishwasher rumbling - we hear what we see.
- It can however, be either on or off screen depending on whether its source is within the frame or outside the frame.

Non-diegetic sound

Another term for non-diegetic sound is commentary sound. 

- Non-diegetic sound where the source of any sound can be heard by the audience, but not by the characters on screen themselves.
- Non-direct sound, as for example background music is a prime example.
- Basically, we can say the non-diegetic sound is sounds that do not naturally belong in the true and natural sound universe.
- However it does contribute to make the film and sound universe whole and complete.

Digital News Production
As the sound designer for our project, it has been important to think about sound effects, music, as well as both diegetic - and non-diegetic sound to be able to build the sound universe to match our project.

When we all sat down and wrote the script for the production, we added in different voice references to viral videos or sensations. As well as we planned ahead for future sound effects, as we had to think about how these would play a big part in our production.

  • When we came to post we pretty much had the sound effects lined up, and planned where which of them would go where. 
  • Everyone has chipped in and thrown different ideas on the table, as to what will work where, and what will sound good. 
  • We took on board the feedback we got, as to make sure levels between music and dialogue will be correct and that one of them will not out power the other - and make the audience lose focus.
  • Particularly for this production, the effects, music and whole sound universe plays a big part - as it is a fast and up to date paced piece wich has to contain sound relevant to topics and characters. 

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//Images from google.com

//Sources from 

In order for news to achieve its purpose, it, of course, has to reach out to people and create an interest. But more importantly, for news to work, it has to communicate - with and to the audience. The communication I key, and it has to be clear and concise, but there is not just one way to do this.

How to see that the communication is working ?
There are different models that can be used to see and achieve how the media or news communicate with an audience, the models show a clearer visual "image" where there are added different steps on the way from the transmitter to the recipient and put into sections. This makes it easier to see the distance a news case has to "travel" before it gets back to the transmitter and they have achieved their goal. As well as it shows how the communication can be interrupted on the way.

The Process Model 

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// translated from Norwegian //

In short:
"The process model shows how to transfer a message from sender / transmitter to receiver / recipient, and what effect the sender / transmitter achieves. "

  • The process model is also referred to as a "linear model", which means that it follows a straight line, from one place to another. 
  • Another word for this model is "The Train-model", as the process model does just like a train, and travels from one station to another in a straight line on one track.
  • In English it is somewhat similar to Claude Shannon´s diagram of the general communication system, however, there are some differences between the Process model and Shannon´s diagram. 

Transmitter - Message - Recipient

- BBC - England hit by swine flu - Helen

The noise occurs between of the message and the recipient, different noise that can affect the message from reaching out and communicate with the audience is;

  • Too technical or advanced use of language
  • People around the recipient being loud, - at work, train station, family etc.
  • Crackling speakers
  • Incomprehensive or foreign language 
  • Spread communication

The Text Model
- extended text concept -

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// translated from Norwegian //

To describe the image above - On top is the "Media text", then in the bottom left corner is the "reader" and on the bottom right corner is the "readers reality = all their experiences in life"

In short:

"The Text Model focuses on the interaction between the text and the recipient."

  • The Text Model - Extended text concept; Means that the text is extended to not just concern the text itself. But also pictures, music, sound, film etc.
  • How do we actually read a media text? How do we understand it?
  • How we interpret and understand a media text has to do with our own reality and experiences. -  Where we live, what is happening around us - war, society, family etc.
  • When we as an audience read a text, we bring with us our attitudes and understanding into how we perceive the text and content. 
  • This model is, therefore an important asset as to how news and news channels have to think in order to be able to customize content as well as create content that is understandable for the certain groups, countries, people they are trying to reach.

There are  not only different models that can help us understand the different communication methods, but there are also different ways we communicate in our everyday lives that contribute to affect the methods, models and our understanding in general of how the media is trying to communicate to us. 

Personal Communication 

Means communication between two or a few people, that are in direct contact with each other. The participants vary and change the role of who is the sender / transmitter and, or receiver / recipient. The communication is private and characterized by direct feedback. 

Other factors relevant to personal communication; 

- Two-ways dialogue
- Private
- Verbal or written
- Does usually not require a medium
- None-professional senders / transmitters
- Constant feedback
- None-verbal : body language
- Not proportional
- Face to face

Mass Communication 

Means dissemination of a message from a source to a target and socially diverse audience in a short time. Mass communication can be communicated through different channels such as, radio signals or computer streams. The transmitter is very often professional and the communication is one-way with very few options, close to none opportunities for feedback. 

Other factors that is relevant to mass communication;

- One-way communication (As of usually, but not always)
- Verbal , written or visual
- Public
- Require a medium
- Professional transmitters (usually)
- Many recipients
- little, or close to none feedback

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Relevance to digital news production 

In terms of our own digital news production, it is very valuable to have a basic understanding of how the communication with an audience works. How we can think - different strategies, specified content aimed at different student groups etc. As our news production is digital and we operate from different social media platforms as well, how we communicate and manage to keep our audience interested matters massively. Therefore looking at these different models has been very helpful to me, and I feel that putting it in context with the difference between mass- and- personal communication gives a better understanding for what our channel is and how we need to create or news for it to work the way we ant it to. 

//Images from google.com

// Sources of information

Previous notes from education at Mysen Videregående
- Media and Communication studies -

Monday 17th of Oct 


For the shooting of our live piece, we had originally planned to film outside the Maidstone studios in one of the car parks. However on the day of filming the weather gods were not with us, and the rain just kept pouring down outside. To solve this we decided to use our backup plan and film in one of the rooms in the base room. We carried in a table, and set up the cameras and sound before we brought our talent in and went through a little rehearsal with our co-presenter George and the two contestants - Patricia and Gavin - who we had asked to compete the week before. We recorded the rehearsal without audience as a backup in case the actual live would go terribly wrong. 

After the rehearsal we invited the audience, students, into the room to shoot the live piece - it was now or never. The recording went luckily, really well and the audience was engaged and cheered their friends on. We finished about 8 seconds early, but we found out that this actually helped save ourselves because we have a pre-recorded studio clip with Josh that takes up that time. As well as we can use the live in a slow motion replay if we need to, to fill up the time.


We used the morning of the day, before lunch (which was the live shoot 13.00-14.00), to set up our green screen. We moved all the chairs in the room and set up all the lights. Made sure to have an as even green screen as possible by using the sandbags to weigh down the fabric a bit to stretch out creases.. We marked the spot for where Josh had to stand, to not create any shadows on the green screen. We also set up the auto cue and camera, and put marks for the camera stand on the floor so we could put it back in the exact same spot when/if moving it.

After everything was set up we filmed through the script in the chronological order, filming each segment several times until we were happy with them and would have enough clips to choose from in the edit. We used a clip mic in Josh to pick up the sound and make it the easiest way to get good sound. This allowed me to monitor the sound as we filmed, and could easily change settings or let the others know if something was happening with the sound.

The filming went really well and we had no problems during shooting, the footage turned out to look really well and we believe we will be able to key it nicely in post-production thanks to the lights being right balanced. 


We decided to film our promo also in front of the green screen as we wanted to replace the backround later on in post with a virtual kitchen. As we had decided that we wanted Josh to be back in a 1960´s advert looking style, where he was dressed as a business man baking social media in his kitchen. 

This shoot was very quickly done as we already had the green screen and lights set up, only thing we did was add on the promo script to the auto cue so it would be easier for Josh to say his lines. Very efficient and happy with the result. 

//Images taken by me

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